Lapidary production

Precious stones accounting ensures that rough diamonds are rationally and efficiently used as well as safety of the precious stones at all stages and during different operations of technological cycle.
Production study of diamond crystals is called diamond marking. At this stage special lines to define surface for sawing or cleaving are marked on the crystal and in case of grinding – to define surface of the diamond. The main goal of marking is to determine the ultimate weight and value of the finished gemstone.
During cleaving or sawing the diamond crystal is separated into pieces and it is up to technologist or grader to whether the diamond should be sawn into two equal stones or one larger and one smaller one, or whether it should be left as a single stone.  At the same time natural defects of the gemstone can be eliminated which consequently increases the value of the future diamonds.
Girdling gives the diamond its rough shape to form its girdle, crown and pavilion. Such technique is used to round the crystals of irregular shape and crystal slivers. In the end the rough gemstone (semi-product) can be used for the pre-application of facets and peeling.  Usually this stage takes place right after the production study but can be done after sawing and cleaving in case of complicated forms of crystal.
Diamonds faceting is a crucial stage in technological cycle of diamond production as the material utilization ratio directly relates to it. During faceting (turning) the base shape of the future diamond is made.  This process can be divided into two parts: rough and finish faceting.
Cutting and polishing are combined in one process and are conducted on one lapper disk parts of which are impregnated with different sized diamond grain (paste). During cutting facets are marked on the girded surface of the gemstone in a certain order with observance of critical cutting parameters.   Polishing provides high clarity of the diamond surface thus the light reflection ratio is considerable. Cutting and polishing are the most hard and important operations in production of diamonds.
Cleaning of diamonds is the final stage in the cycle of diamonds production the goal of which is to clean off the manufacturing dirt and oil from the diamond surface. Cleaning consists of several consequent stages. To give luster to the diamond, gemstone is wiped with based on sulphuric acid detergent soak with addition of potassium nitrate, distilled water and  dehydrated alcohol.